Type 2 diabetes is also known as noninsulin-dependent diabetes or adult-onset diabetes. It refers to a chronic condition that usually affects the way the human body metabolizes sugars (glucose), which is the body’s most important fuel source. This type of diabetes can be described as the situation where the body rejects insulin effects or it does not produce an adequate amount of insulin to maintain a normal level of glucose. Insulin is the hormone that is involved in the regulation of how sugar moves into the body cells. In order to correct this imbalance, a patient can consider using several Type 2 Diabetes treatments discussed below.
Although this type of diabetes is usually common among adults, there are cases of children getting affected due to the rising cases of obesity in children. There is no sure cure for this diabetes type but there are several ways of managing this condition. These include proper diet, exercises and maintenance of a healthy body weight. If these are not enough then you may need to undergo insulin therapy or try some diabetes medications that are available.
Medications and Insulin Therapy
There are people who are lucky to achieve their target levels of blood sugar through diet and exercises alone but there are those who still need insulin therapy and medications. The type of medication to be used usually depends on a number of factors like health problems one could be having and their blood sugar level. It is even possible for some doctors to recommend combining of drugs that belong to different classes in order to assist in controlling the blood sugar in different ways.
Some of the possible treatments for this type 2 diabetes include the following:
This medication type assists the body to secrete insulin in a higher level. Some of the medications in this particular class are the glipizide (Glucotrol), glyburide (Glynase, DiaBeta) and lastly glimepiride (Amaryl). The possible side effects to the use of this medication include weight gain and low blood sugar.
2Metformin (Glumetza, Glucophage and others)
This is usually the first medication that is usually prescribed for the type 2 diabetes. It is able to work by generally improving the sensitivity levels of the tissues in the human body to insulin. This enables the body to utilize insulin in a more effective way. Metformin also works by lowering the production of glucose by the liver. This treatment cannot be effective on its own as the doctor will usually advise you to undergo several lifestyle changes like being more active and losing weight.
Diarrhea and nausea are some of the side effects that are possible to experience upon the use of metformin. They however, subside when the body fully adjusts to the medicine. If this treatment is not enough then other medications whether injected or oral are added.
They work in just the same way as the sulfonylureas through pancreas stimulation for more insulin to be secreted. They usually act fast and the duration that they take to make their effect on the body is way shorter. They are at risk of causing low blood sugar but this risk is lower when compared to the sulfonylureas. It is possible for patients taking this medication to experience weight gain. Examples of these medications include the nateglinide (Starlix) and the repaglinide (Prandin).
This medication works in a similar way to Metformin in making the tissues of the body to become more sensitive to the insulin produced in the body. This class of medication has been linked to not only weight gain but also other serious side effects like an increased risk to heart fractures and failure. These risks have made this medication not to become a first choice for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Examples include pioglitazone (Actos) and Rosiglitazone (Avandia).
These type of medications help in reducing blood sugar levels but they tend to have an effect that is modest. They also do not cause one to gain weight. Examples are saxagliptin (Onglyza), sitagliptin (Januvia) and Linagliptin (Tradjenta).
6GLP-1 receptor agonists
They slow digestion and also lower the levels of blood sugar but not in the same way like the sulfonylureas. Using these medications has been linked to weight loss and that is why they are not recommended to be used on their own. Other side effects include risk of pancreatitis and nausea. Examples include liraglutide (Victoza) and Exenatide (Byetta).
These are some of the newest drugs for diabetes in the market. They prevent the kidneys from reabsorbing sugar into the blood so that it is excreted via the urine. They have side effects like urinary tract infections, yeast infections, hypotension and increased urination. Examples of these medications are dapagliflozin (Farxiga) and canagliflozin (Invokana).
There are some patients suffering from type 2 diabetes who require to also have insulin therapy. This insulin therapy was in the past used as the last resort but nowadays it is being prescribed soonest due to the various benefits it possesses. Normal digestion usually interferes with the insulin that is taken through the mouth and hence more insulin ought to be injected into the body. The type of insulin type to use will be decided by the needs your body has and the most common is one long-acting shot done at night.
There are various options of insulin therapies available like the insulin lispro, glulisine, glargine, aspart, isophane and detemir. The type to be used should be discussed with the doctor in order to consider various factors like costs, health aspects etc. Aspirin therapy and cholesterol-lowering drugs are also prescribed to prevent against blood vessel and heart diseases.
For people who suffer from this type 2 diabetes and their body mass index is higher than 35, they should consider going for a bariatric surgery (weight-loss surgery). This surgery enables the return to normal of the levels of blood sugar. This has been witnessed in about 55-95% people suffering from diabetes and underwent the surgery. The surgeries that result in the bypassing of a small portion of the small intestine often have more effect on the levels of blood sugar than the other surgeries meant for weight-loss.
All the above are some of the type 2 diabetes treatments available for patients suffering from this type of diabetes. Pregnant women who suffer from this diabetes type normally use insulin therapy only throughout their pregnancy. It is advisable to consult a doctor widely before using any of these treatments discussed above.
Type 2 Diabetes Treatment and Management
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